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                 電爐爐底電極對耐火材料的性能及使用要求

                電爐爐底電極由導電的耐火材料、陽極銅板、出線端子及風冷體系構成,并要求與爐殼絕緣。它要求耐火材料自身除具有良好的高溫功能外,還要具有良好的導電功能。在導電爐底風冷式底電極體系中,作為陽極的爐底導電耐火材料有必要具有如下特征:
                The bottom electrode of electric furnace is composed of conductive refractory, anode copper plate, outlet terminal and air cooling system, and it is required to be insulated from furnace shell. It requires that refractories not only have good high temperature function, but also have good conductive function. In the air-cooled bottom electrode system of conductive furnace bottom, it is necessary for the conductive refractory as anode to have the following characteristics:
                (1)電阻盡可能低,并且要均勻、安穩。這既要求導電耐火材料要有良好的導電性,不然電阻過大,致使電耗添加、爐底溫度增加與壽數下降。為此,要求電阻率應在10-4~10-3Q·m之間;一起要求導電耐火材料的電阻率均勻,且不隨溫度變化或變化很小。
                (1) The resistance should be as low as possible, even and stable. This requires that the conductive refractories should have good conductivity, otherwise the resistance is too large, resulting in the increase of power consumption, the increase of furnace bottom temperature and the decrease of life. Therefore, it is required that the resistivity should be between 10-4 and 10-3 Q · m, and that the resistivity of conductive refractories should be uniform and not change with temperature or change little.


                (2)熱導率低。以確保熱丟失少,提高電爐的熱效率。
                (2) The thermal conductivity is low. To ensure less heat loss and improve the thermal efficiency of electric furnace.
                (3)抗熱化學和熱物理蝕損系數高。即要求具有良好的抗渣、抗脫落、抗氧化性及較高的耐壓強度,然后取得低消耗與高壽數。
                (3) High physical and chemical heat loss coefficient. It is required to have good slag resistance, anti shedding, oxidation resistance and high compressive strength, and then achieve low consumption and high life.
                滿足上述要求對直流電爐正常運轉有著主要的含義。首要,爐子在開始送電操作時,爐底電極電阻低、導電性良好,用不著任何預熱,也不必發動電極就可以發動。其次,安穩和均勻的導電功能避免電流密度過大,使底襯過熱,出現熱點而過早損壞。
                To meet the above requirements has the main meaning for the normal operation of DC furnace. First of all, when the furnace starts the power transmission operation, the resistance of the furnace bottom electrode is low and the conductivity is good. It can be started without any preheating or starting the electrode. Secondly, stable and uniform conductive function, to avoid the current density is too large, so that the backing overheating, hot spots and premature damage.

                 
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